MAY 4 Josef and Anni Albers Foundation to unveil new maternity and paediatric hospital in Senegal Anny Shaw, The Art Newspaper

FEBRUARY 22 The Philanthropic Genius of Josef and Anni Albers Claire Wrathall, Financial Times

JANUARY 25 The Revelations of an Unlikely Pairing Peter Schjeldahl, The New Yorker

JANUARY 22 Three exhibitions to see in New York this weekend Gabriella Angeleti and Wallace Ludel, The Art Newspaper

JANUARY 21 The T List: Five Things We Recommend This Week Thessaly La Force, The New York Times Style Magazine

The maternity and pediatric hospital in Tambacounda, Senegal, designed by Manuel Herz. Photo: Iwan Baan

Josef and Anni Albers Foundation to unveil new maternity and paediatric hospital in Senegal

Around three years ago, Nicholas Fox Weber, the director of the Josef and Anni Albers Foundation, was standing in the paediatric unit of Tambacounda Hospital in Senegal, looking at a broken incubator.

"It was basically a refrigerator tray with a light bulb hanging over it, with three babies squeezed together on it," he says. "We quickly got a new incubator from Dakar, but then I thought, 'Why is this necessary in our world with all this privilege? I'm in the art world, a world where people are worrying about which gallery is representing Jeff Koons for however many millions of dollars of art. Why is it necessary to have this pathetic hospital?'"

Three years, one design competition and multiple trips later, a new maternity and paediatric hospital is being unveiled this month.

The German architect Manuel Herz, who has written extensively on African Modernism, won the competition, chiefly because he chose to visit Tambacounda before submitting his design. "Manuel paid such attention to the needs of the people there, to the reality of living in 45 degree heat," says Fox Weber, who first visited Tambacounda in 2000.

Though Herz's practice had not previously been influenced by the Albers's work, "he incorporated what I would call 'Albersian' thinking in a lot of what he did", Fox Weber says. The white wooden hospital doors, for instance, are based on a Bauhaus-period design of Anni Albers.

"Manuel has the qualities that they cared about. He has a tremendous sense of rhythm and a great knowledge of materials. He designed the roof structure so that it traps heat, and the building doesn't require air conditioning," Fox Weber says. "Anni and Josef often talked about minimal needs for maximum effect. And I would say that the hospital exemplifies that."

Throughout the process, Herz worked in close collaboration with local leader Dr Magueye Ba, employing craftsmen and engineers from Tambacounda and the surrounding villages to build the 150-bed hospital.

The new, snaking building, which is just seven metres in width, joins the paediatric and maternity wings, as well as providing toilets for the families of patients. "Sometimes Manuel's concerns were purely practical, but he immersed himself in the culture of Tambacounda, the way that the Alberses did in the culture of Mexico," Fox Weber says. "He discovered that families were camping out at the hospital, so he incorporated toilets for the families of patients. This is the sort of thing I know that Anni and Josef would have been very pleased about. They focused on the realities of life."

Herz's "great sense of economy" was another winning factor. "This is not an expensive building for what it is," says Fox Weber, who estimates the project to have cost less than €2m. The new maternity and paediatric unit at Tambacounda Hospital is financed with funds raised by the non-profit Le Korsa, which Fox Weber says is supported substantially by the Albers Foundation. He adds that gallery sales have been important for funding, as "it certainly helps us immensely that we've done so well with David Zwirner. It puts us in a much stronger position to undertake projects like this".

The foundation and Le Korsa—the philanthropic arm of the foundation that Fox Weber established in 2005—is now trying to raise an additional $500,000 to building housing for hospital staff. The building's design is based on a print by Anni Albers.

As Fox Weber points out: "It can be hard to attract doctors and nurses to Tambacounda. It's remote and it's terribly hot, even by Senegalese standards. The solution, in part, would be to have really nice housing for the staff."

In a bid to raise awareness and funds, Herz will present an installation, The Many Lives of Tambacounda, at the Venice Architecture Biennale, which opens without guests later this month.


Maternity and Pediatric Hospital, Tambacounda, Senegal, construction site, July 2020. Photo: Manuel Herz

The Philanthropic Genius of Josef and Anni Albers

One spring day in 1971, Nicholas Fox Weber, then a graduate student at Yale, was taken by a friend's mother to meet the by-then elderly German-born Bauhaus artists Josef and Anni Albers. Their home—not something in the style of Mies van der Rohe, but "the most ordinary, understated, American raised-ranch house"—took him by surprise. As did the impromptu lunch of Kentucky Fried Chicken. "But Anni had made it look so beautiful the way she presented it," he recalls. "She could transform anything."

The seeds of a friendship were planted. That same year, the Albers established a foundation to further "the revelation and evocation of vision through art", which Fox Weber was hired to run in 1976, the year Josef died, and which he has overseen ever since. This spring it celebrates its 50th anniversary with the opening of a new 150-bed maternity and paediatric hospital that will serve a population of 650,000 in the rural Tambacounda region of eastern Senegal.

The journey to west Africa from Connecticut—where the Albers settled in 1950 and where their foundation remains based—was a serendipitous one. In 2000, Fox Weber was living in Paris when his dermatologist, Gilles Degois, mentioned that he and some colleagues ran a non-profit in Senegal and had built a medical centre. "I wanted to know more," says Fox Weber. "Gilles said, 'Come on our next trip.'"

Within weeks they were on their way. Instructed to bring an empty duffel bag, Fox Weber found himself carrying 250 toothbrushes and tubes of toothpaste for a convent school that had just got running water, "so the girls could at last clean their teeth". The doctor's duffel bag, meanwhile, was filled with bags of blood, which were needed in Tambacounda. "I had never seen a more effective way of helping other people. Josef used to talk about minimal means and maximum effect." This initiative struck him as a perfect expression of that maxim.

Fox Weber was looking to expand the work of the foundation. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, Anni—whose once-affluent Jewish parents had fled Germany for the US in 1939—received an unexpected legacy of almost $2m from the restitution of her family's property, which in turn buoyed the finances of the foundation. Some of this had been used to build the Albers Foundation's campus in Bethany, Connecticut, a handsome complex of gallery space, library and archive, as well as studios for visiting artists. Run as a non-profit, it is self-sustaining, not least through the licensing of the Albers' designs and commercial partnerships with, among others, the rug designer Christopher Farr, Hermès, Roksanda, Paul Smith and Uniqlo.

In 2005, a new philanthropic venture, Le Korsa, was born. At first its remit was to support the work of Dr Degois's no longer extant NGO in Senegal, constructing a kindergarten and a residence for teachers. Then, in 2015, it built a cultural centre, Thread, designed pro bono by the Japanese architect Toshiko Mori, which not only serves the local community but has also benefited a succession of visiting artists and designers, among them Damien Poulain, Tomma Abts and Grace Wales Bonner.

Next came a school, the first in its region to provide more than traditional Koranic instruction. "I had to get the permission of the grand marabout [the area's religious leader], which wasn't easy in a largely Muslim region of more than 100 villages where there had never before been a secular school," says Fox Weber. "And I thought I would run into difficulty when we made it clear that we wanted boys and girls to be taught together. But there was no resistance." And in a village that had been largely illiterate, "there are now 220 children learning to read and write."

This April will see the inauguration of the hospital, designed, again pro bono, by the Swiss architects Manuel Herz. Working almost exclusively with local craftsmen and engineers, it—like the school—not only provided employment and training but has also advanced passive-building design. Its S-shaped footprint is, for example, just 7m wide, so that rooms can be cooled through cross-ventilation to minimise the need for air conditioning; and an ingenious double-layered, barrel-vaulted roof creates a chimney effect, drawing the heat up and out of the rooms below. "It's groundbreaking architecture, absolutely," says Fox Weber. There will be an exhibition of Manuel Herz's designs for Tambacounda Hospital at this year's Venice Architecture Biennale.

But the hospital's impact on infant and maternal mortality in the region, currently the joint highest in Senegal, should be yet more profound. "The image of homeless newborns, gathered under the trees of the [existing] hospital for want of a crèche, will soon be a bad memory," says Dr Magueye Ba, the local leader with whom Le Korsa has collaborated on most of its projects in the area.

Of course, all will continue to require funding, for which money still needs to be raised. "I don't think it's fair to build a school and a hospital and give people enormous hope and then not sustain every programme," says Fox Weber. "But as Josef once said, 'To distribute material possessions is to divide them; to divide spiritual possessions is to multiply them.' I'd say that's what we're trying to do."


Josef Albers
Study to Homage to the Square, 1954
oil and casein on masonite
12 x 12 in. (30.5 x 30.5 cm)

The Revelations of an Unlikely Pairing

In a show at Zwirner, the soft cosmos of Giorgio Morandi's domestic tableaux is relieved and refreshed by the architectonics of Josef Albers's squares.

Imagine bits of wood trapped in eddies of a stream, going round and round atop the waters that flow beneath them. The image comes to mind in response to a surprising show—surprisingly great, contrary to my skeptical expectation—at David Zwirner's New York gallery. The works on display are by two artists who can seem bizarrely mismatched: Josef Albers, the starchy German-American abstract painter, Yale School of Art professor, and color theorist, who died in 1976, at the age of eighty-eight, and Giorgio Morandi, the seraphic Italian still-life painter of bottles, vases, and other sorts of domestic objects, who died in 1964, at the age of seventy-three.

In 1950, Albers wedded himself to a format of three or four nested, hard-edged squares on square supports—Homage to the Square, he called them—centered a bit below the pictures' vertical midpoints. That was it, for him. His occasional departures from the formula in the following years availed little. The point was color, explored through often arcane contrasts between the central squares and the ones that border them. The combinations never feel familiar or predictable, and you would need acres of color charts to denominate Albers's palette.

Morandi spent half a century transfixed by items in his studio, often arranged on a single high tabletop that he had built so he could work standing up. Often woozily drawn and always tenderly brushed in muted colors, the tableaux look but don't feel repetitive. Each could be the first and only one, quietly struggling with the defining problem of pictorial representation—the reduction of three dimensions to two. A fixation on that challenge seemed to bar Morandi (the odd tentative landscape notwithstanding) from extending his scope in either subject or form. It's as if, every day, he had to finally get right something that can't be got at all: reality as it is, at one with our perception of it.

Albers, who spent thirteen years studying and teaching at the Bauhaus, is academic and even pedantic in spirit, easy to admire while hard to like. Morandi is deeply poetic. What does displaying their paintings together accomplish? In terms of formal art history, nothing in itself; they're so different. But then I think of those circling bits of wood. Both artists worked independently of the canons of modern art without being outsiders—they were in the stream but resistant to its direction. They weren't eccentric, even. Rather, their approach proposed artistic visions that deviated from the forward march of modernism: alternative movements of one. The artists' insistence can seem exasperated, as though they were waiting for the world to catch on to truths that were obvious to them. They were brothers in perseverance. To my amazement, viewing them together electrifies, as their works' extremes play off each other. Think of it as a pas de deux of a drill sergeant (Albers) and an enchanter (Morandi). There's a crackle in perception when you turn from works by one artist to those of the other.

The Zwirner show is one of the best installed that I've ever seen. Its four large rooms host rhythmic arrays and alternations that induce that crackle: the soft cosmos of Morandi is both relieved and refreshed by the architectonics of Albers, and vice versa. The artists share an intensity of artistic vocation. Neither looked over his shoulder at trends of the day. Most of the pieces in the show (twenty-three by each artist) are small. This was Morandi's habitual scale and Albers's most successful one. Albers shines when his superimposed squares deliver their color rhymes and clashes at a glance. His strongest proportion is little more than a foot square—head-size. Extended to larger canvases, the dynamic weakens. Having to shift your gaze from one part of a painting by him to another is tedious: no new information awaits you. The ambition implied by bigness—a fashion made almost obligatory by Abstract Expressionism back then—calls unwelcome attention to the arbitrary parameters of Albers's style. You've stopped looking at the work and fallen to only thinking about it. His strong suit was condensation.

Naming the colors that Albers used is a non-starter, even with an allowance for the physiological fact that all of our color perceptions are hopelessly subjective and indescribable—an evolutionarily primitive function of our brains. (Tell me what red is. Take your time. I'll wait.) By wizardly variations of tone and chroma, he explores the secret lives of hues that seem startled to find themselves conjoined. The result is, remarkably, never decorative; Albers may even be at his most compelling when he flirts with ugliness, throwing monkey wrenches into our instinctive quests for harmony. Colors may never be more themselves than when, in juxtaposition, they don't work. A philosophical commitment rules, governing decisions at a high, rather stern pitch of consciousness. This effect can intimidate when it is taken as an indication that someone, the artist, understands phenomena that you and I will always fumble to grasp. Albers exalts expertise. But be brave. You'll be better from having undergone the salutary ordeal.

The only possible impediment to appreciating Morandi is incredulity at the idea of small, grayish, unresolved images of mundane things as major art. But I believe that no one who is sentient can indefinitely discount Morandi. His efforts to negotiate pictorial depth yield one fresh epiphany after another. It feels not quite right to think of the works as pictures. Morandi cares less about what his painted objects are than about where they are: standing alone or overlapping at variable distances while, of course, occupying the same paint surface. He describes a metaphysical predicament between what's there in the world and what's here in us. This doesn't require precise drawing or balanced composition. He is not a realist. Sometimes the surface of the shelf appears porous, and gives no felt sense of support for the things atop it. At other times, he alters the level of the line that indicates the junction of the shelf and a wall, from one side to the other of what is rendered in front of it. What's a shelf? What's a wall? What's their interrelation? (Both are flat, as is painting.) Morandi drains our seeing of complacency. He occults the obvious. Normal physics of mass and gravity don't apply to adventures of the eye in space that is given material presence.

I'm leaving out the charm and, on occasion, the beauty of Morandi's repertory company of performing objects—a certain fluted white vase wins kudos whenever it is onstage—because they are incidental to a spatial conundrum that is kept in tension by beautiful over-all brushwork. I'm also setting aside the role of color in Morandi: the practically infinite variations of grays and browns, tinted or patched here and there with subtle coloration, often orangish, that imparts emotional moods to the works, no less affecting for being ungraspable. Morandi painted a zone of reality that is within reach yet cannot be touched, infusing vision with a delicate frustration of tactility. The result is an ontological mystery, confounding sight with touch and both with wonderment at their mutuality.

The Zwirner show provides a capital jump start to sensibilities deadened by nearly a year of scant physical encounters with art. Commercially, the show plainly aims to boost the allure of artists who, while well known, remain at the fringes of major fame. A cynical thought of the marketing motive hardened my heart in advance of my visit. But "money talks" is a vulgarism disarmed when money says something intelligent and exciting. I had forgotten, after previously having taken for granted, the free services to cultivation, and to sociability, of good galleries. Nearly a year of being disheartened by the online garishness and promotional smarm of digitized images has set me up to rediscover the pungency of direct aesthetic experience. There can be no meaningful discourse about art divorced from that. Intellectual appreciation starves for want of it. The less you see, the dumber you get.

I feel passably smarter now, thanks to the Zwirner show, and returned to the flow of sensation and reflection that constitutes a life in art. Mixed feelings about Albers and renewed reverence for Morandi give my lately wandering mind work to do. Not incidentally, I'm reminded to rejoice at being a New Yorker, in (well, nearby—upstate, pending vaccination) the world's premier city of art galleries.


Installation view, Albers and Morandi: Never Finished, David Zwirner, New York, 2021. Photo courtesy of David Zwirner

Three exhibitions to see in New York this weekend

Albers and Morandi: Never Finished

Until April 3 at David Zwirner, 537 West 20th Street, Manhattan

With a two-person show of works by Giorgio Morandi and Josef Albers, David Zwirner has unloaded an unlikely exhibition of a pair of art historical heavy-hitters whose work, when seen side by side, dances and duels in surprising albeit logical ways. Born just two years apart (Albers in 1888 and Morandi in 1890) the two have singular visions. Albers's motif of nested geometry from his Homage to the Square series, which the artist worked on from 1950 until his death, created a vehicle to explore what would become modern colour theory, while from the early 1920s onwards, Morandi dedicated himself to deceptively simple still lifes of bottles and other ephemera that became the vehicle for endless exploration. Juxtaposing the two artists teases out what can happen when a question is probed for so long that it creates a microcosmic universe, birthing worlds of infinite possibility.


Left: Josef and Anni Albers in their living room at 8 North Forest Circle, New Haven, Conn., ca. 1965. Photo © John T. Hill. Right: Anni & Josef Albers: Equal and Unequal by Nicholas Fox Weber

The T List: Five Things We Recommend This Week

When it comes to great creative partnerships, there's perhaps no better example than Josef and Anni Albers, two artists who met in Germany in 1922 at the Bauhaus school. Later, the couple immigrated to the United States to teach at North Carolina's Black Mountain College and they ultimately ended up in New Haven, Conn., where Josef was chairman of the design department at Yale University. The two were teachers, colleagues and friends of a number of prominent 20th-century artists, including Ruth Asawa, Buckminster Fuller, Ray Johnson and Robert Rauschenberg. Now, a new monograph, published by Phaidon and written by Nicholas Fox Weber, who runs the Josef and Anni Albers Foundation, and who met the couple in 1971, when he was 23, captures in masterful detail the many sides of the Alberses, including their rigor as artists (Josef as painter and designer; Anni as textile artist and printmaker), their deep commitment to pedagogy and the way in which their work was both connected to and still fiercely independent of each other's. The book weaves artworks throughout biographies of both artists and features portraits of the people who surrounded them (the architect Philip Johnson, the painter Jacob Lawrence), as well as lively anecdotes about the couple's working relationship. When Josef designed a fruit bowl in 1924 with ebony bearing balls, a glass disk and a chromed rim, Anni commented: "Oh, but think of what happens with blueberries." (The bowl was more suited to larger fruit, such as apples, oranges or bananas.) And, for those of us unable to afford an artwork by either Albers, the book also serves as a beautiful object. Anni & Josef Albers: Equal and Unequal, $150,